The study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are extremely serious and life-threatening, is known as neuro-oncology (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumours ). Gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (very anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the most aggressive brain malignancies. 
Cancer is a dangerous disease that occurs when cells begin to divide abnormally and without control. With a few significant exceptions, such as leukaemia, the majority of cancer cells take the form of tumours. Cancer does not exist in all tumours. Moles, for example, stop developing and are not cancerous. A range of symptoms can be used to diagnose cancer.

Clinical trials are a type of medical study in which participants follow a pre-determined protocol to address a specific patient care question. Clinical trials are used to examine cancer medicines, cardiovascular disease treatments, new drug safety profile, and a variety of other ailments. A clinical trial is a research study that analyses reactions to various interventions in real-world settings in order to determine the efficacy of drugs or other health treatments. 
Cancer is a disease characterised by uncontrolled cell growth and tumour formation due to genetic alterations. DNA damage and genomic instability are the leading causes of sporadic (non-familial) malignancies. Inherited genetic mutations cause a small percentage of malignancies. 
The bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes stomach cancer in people who are infected with it. Hepatocellular carcinoma is caused by chronic HBV and HCV infection. Some viruses are known to cause or contribute to cancer development.
Human cancer is generally not communicable, though oncoviruses and cancer germs can cause it. The term "environmental," as used by cancer researchers, refers to everything that interacts with humans outside of the body. 
A cancer biomarker is a substance or activity that can be used to detect the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker is a chemical produced by a tumour or a specific body reaction to the presence of cancer. 
Palliative care is the treatment of serious illness's suffering, symptoms, and stress. Pain, shortness of breath, exhaustion, constipation, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep issues, and a variety of other symptoms can all be relieved with palliative care.
Stem cell treatment is a type of regenerative medicine that works by lowering inflammation and modifying the immune system to repair damaged cells in the body.
The market for cancer medications is divided into therapeutic segments such as immunotherapy, targeted therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and others. Over the projected period, the immunotherapy sector is predicted to grow at the quickest rate in the global market. 
Cancer research encompasses everything from epidemiology to molecular biology to the conduct of clinical studies to assess and compare the efficacy of various cancer treatments.
Chemotherapy, a cancer treatment that works by eliminating cells that divide at a faster rate than usual, requires careful side effect management. Normal cells may be killed during chemotherapy because chemotherapy drugs cannot discriminate between malignant and healthy cells
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that employs high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. X-rays are most commonly utilized in radiation therapy, however protons or other forms of energy can also be used. Radiation therapy causes cell damage by damaging the genetic information that regulates cell growth and division. 
Chemotherapy is a type of chemical medication therapy that is used to kill fast-growing cells in the body. Chemotherapy is frequently used in conjunction with other treatments such surgery, radiation, and hormone therapy. Combination therapy is used depending on the stage and type of cancer you have, as well as your overall health and past cancer therapies
Vaccines prepare your immune system to resist infections such as mumps and measles. Cancer vaccines teach the body how to fight cancer. 
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a “profound” impact on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer around the world. The cancer patients are at greater risk for COVID-related morbidity and mortality because of their immuno-suppression.